Project Kāhea Loko
“The Call of the Pond”

A Teacher’s Guide to Hawaiian Fishponds

Grades 4-5, 6-8, 9-12


Produced by

The Pacific American Foundation

in cooperation with
Waikalua Loko Fishpond Preservation Society,
Hawaiʻi Department of Education
and University of Hawaiʻi Sea Grant College Program

Download The 401 page Book
as .pdf

Or scroll to bottom of page for grade level groupings

Introduction

“Let that which is unknown become known.”
John Papa Ii (1959)

Let us not allow the broken walls of the loko iʻa (fishponds) to separate us from that which was known and practiced in the past.
The foundations of the walls are still evident, as are the wisdom and knowledge of our kūpuna.
The reflections of the sun, moon, and stars upon our waters are as old as time.
Let these be beacons of light to guide our haumāna (students) to these ponds of knowledge.
Let us help them rebuild the walls of these living resources where they can gather, as did the pua iʻa (fish fry), to grow and be nurtured.
With education and inspiration, the legacy of our ancestors can be preserved and passed on to future generations, a mau a mau, (forever and ever). —Christine Tamaru (2001)


Project Overview

Kāhea Loko is “the call of the pond.” From the ocean currents surging through the stone-walled channels to the excited cries of haumāna (students) discovering fishpond life, the loko iʻa (fishpond) calls to us in many ways. From the broad perspective of the ahupuaʻa (major land division), the loko iʻa helps us to appreciate the connection between land and sea and to experience the rhythm of tides and seasons. From an intimate perspective, the pond leads us to discover how the tiniest life forms fit into the web of pond life.

The loko iʻa calls to us to honor the values, traditions, and achievements of Hawaiian kūpuna (ancestors) so that we may incorporate these into our own lives. These kūpuna had the highest regard for the loko iʻa believing in the interrelationship of all things: sky and earth; ocean and land; land and human; human and gods. “The Hawaiian and all other natural forms of his world were the beneficiaries of this primal cadence and flowed with the rhythm of the universe” (Kanahele, 1997). The Hawaiians’ intimate knowledge of life cycles, seasonal rhythms, and tides and currents was the foundation for the remarkable engineering feats they achieved in the construction of loko iʻa.

Hawaiian kūpuna revered the mauli (life force) of the fishpond. This humility and respect for all things, living and nonliving, helped them to be pono or in balance with nature. Values such as mahalo, aloha, and mālama had multiple meanings for these kūpuna, and these values were deeply imbedded into the culture, language, and lifestyle.

It is our kuleana (responsibility) as teachers to enlighten our students—using these values within contextual frameworks such as the loko iʻa so that our haumāna can connect with and nurture that life force inside themselves and in their environment. The overall goal of Project Kāhea Loko is mālama i ka ʻāina (to care for the land)—to help our students understand why it is so important to conserve cultural and natural resources and to discover how we can restore and care for our historic fishponds.

To achieve that goal, Project Kāhea Loko developed a complete set of field-tested curricula for Grades 4 – 12 designed to meet selected academic and performance standards set by the Hawaiʻi Department of Education (DOE). The project seeks to incorporate Hawaiian fishponds (loko iʻa) as learning tools into the mainstream educational system for Hawaiʻi’s school children. Working in concert with other fishpond projects, teachers, pond operators, historians, Hawaiian language and cultural experts, the Kāhea Loko team has collected and organized fishpond-related cultural, historic, and scientific data into culturally appropriate curriculum units for use in Hawai’i’s schools. Project Kāhea Loko is a three-year project funded by the U.S. Department of Education and administered by the Pacific American Foundation.

Organization of Teacher’s Guide

Each unit begins with an introduction that includes background information on the content covered for all grades.  A conceptual framework for each grade level cluster, 4 – 5, 6 – 8, and 9 – 12, separates the activities within each unit. These include social studies and science standard benchmarks that form the basis of the materials, focus questions for each instructional activity, key concepts and a summary of activities to assess student achievement.

Following the frameworks are activities that challenge students to apply what they have learned. Sample rubrics to assess student achievement are found in the Appendix.  These will be most effective if students are involved in the decision-making on the criteria that will ultimately be used to assess their work, and if students view the criteria as a challenge to strive for their best work. Also in the Appendix are

1) a  Glossary with vocabulary for each activity;

2) a set of pond life cards featuring the plants and animals that live in fishponds;

3) a list of suggested field trip sites (for post COVID-19 activities); and

4) a list of suggested resources for further study of fishponds and fishtraps.

Website and Video Resources: A virtual tour of the Fishpond is available at https://thepaf.org/waikalua and additional resources are there, with information about fishponds around the state. Ultimately, the goal is to provide a link to facilitate the sharing of culminating projects with other schools. In this way, students throughout the state will contribute to a growing body of knowledge about fishponds in Hawaiʻi.

Our video features students learning from Hawaiian kūpuna and fishpond managers about different types of ponds, how the loko iʻa function, and what is being done to mālama (care for) fishponds today.

Funding provided by the U.S. Department of Education, Native Hawaiian Education Act Grant No. S297A000013
The contents of this Teacher’s Guide were developed under a grant from the Department of Education. However, those contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the Department of Education, and readers should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government.
Partial support for this project was obtained from the State of Hawaiʻi Department of Agriculture Aquaculture Development Program (ADP) as part of the Aquaculture Extension Project with the University of Hawaiʻi Sea Grant Extension Service, Contracts No. 48499 and 49855. Additional funding provided by a grant from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, project #A/AS-1, which is sponsored by the University of Hawaiʻi Sea Grant College Program, SOEST, under Institutional Grant No. NA16RG2254 from NOAA Office of Sea Grant, Department of Commerce. The views expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of NOAA or any of its subagencies. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-CR-02-01.

Standards Based Curriculum

Unit 1: The Physical Setting

 

The instructional activities in Unit 1 help students to discover different types of fishponds and fishtraps and to understand how these structures were built to take advantage of different physical features within an ahupuaʻa. A Pacific island perspective is introduced in Grades 6 – 8 as students delve into questions about the extensive development of fishponds in Hawaiʻi compared to other island areas.

 

Unit 2: Life in the Fishpond

Unit 2 introduces students to the diversity of plants and animals that live in a fishpond. Activities help students investigate interdependence among species, how lōkahi (balance) is maintained in the pond, and how marine organisms respond to seasonal and tidal changes.

Unit 3: Early Hawai’ian Fishponds

The activities in Unit 3 help students to explore how fishing evolved in Hawaiʻi from catching to growing fish, the ingenuity involved in fishpond engineering, and what traditional practices and moʻolelo (legends) can teach us about values that are important in Hawaiian culture.Unit Overview

Unit 4: Fishponds Today

Unit 4 challenges students to assess how fishponds and their uses have changed in Hawaiʻi, and to debate issues related to fishpond restoration today. The unit includes field studies at a fishpond and culminating activities that build on content addressed in the first three units.

Grades 4-5

Unit 1: The Physical Setting
Unit Introduction (Pages Cover, 1-4)
[ PDF ] [ Text Only ]
Unit at a Glance (Pages 5-6)
[ PDF ] [ Text Only ]
Loko Iʻa (Pages 7-30)
[ PDF ] [ Text Only ]
Mauka to Makai: The Ahupuaʻa (Pages 31-34)
[ PDF ] [ Text Only ]
Unit 2: Life in the Fishpond
Unit Introduction (Pages Cover, 1-2)
[ PDF ] [ Text Only ]
Unit at a Glance (Pages 3-4)
[ PDF ] [ Text Only ]
Recipe for a Fishpond (Pages 5-10)
[ PDF ] [ Text Only ]
Lōkahi Game (Pages 11-20)
[ PDF ] [ Text Only ]
Unit 3: Early Hawaiian Fishponds
Unit Introduction (Pages Cover, 1-4)
[ PDF ] [ Text Only ]
Unit at a Glance (Pages 5-6)
[ PDF ] [ Text Only ]
Engineering Ingenuity (Pages 7-10)
[ PDF ] [ Text Only ]
Catch It! Grow It! (Pages 11-20)
[ PDF ] [ Text Only ]
Haku Mele Aloha: Composing in Hawaiian (Pages 21-28)
[ PDF ] [ Text Only ]
Unit 4: Hawaiian Fishponds Today
Unit Introduction (Pages Cover, 1-4)
[ PDF ] [ Text Only ]
Unit at a Glance (Pages 5-6)
[ PDF ] [ Text Only ]
Exploring a Fishpond (Pages 7-14)
[ PDF ] [ Text Only ]

Appendix.pdf  – includes:Glossary, Pond Life Cards, Field Sites, Additional Resources, Portfolios and Rubrics

Grades 6-8

Unit 1: The Physical Setting
Unit Introduction (Pages Cover, 1-4)
[PDF] [ Text Only ]
Unit at a Glance (Pages 35-36)
[PDF] [ Text Only ]
Pacific Patterns: Traditional Fishing and Land Use (Pages 37-48)
[PDF] [ Text Only ]
From Fishtraps to Fishponds (Pages 49-60)
[PDF] [ Text Only ]
Unit 2: Life in the Fishpond
Unit Introduction (Pages Cover, 1-2)
[PDF] [ Text Only ]
Unit at a Glance (Pages 21-24)
[PDF] [ Text Only ]
Seasons and Tides: Marine Responses to Celestial Changes (Pages 25-42)
[PDF] [ Text Only ]
Kai Moku: The Turn of the Tide (Pages 43-64)
[PDF] [ Text Only ]
Unit 3: Early Hawaiian Fishponds
Unit Introduction (Pages Cover, 1-4)
[PDF] [ Text Only ]
Unit at a Glance (Pages 29-30)
[PDF] [ Text Only ]
Whose Kuleana Is It Anyway? (Pages 31-56)
[PDF] [ Text Only ]
Fishpond Fall (Pages 57-76)
[PDF] [ Text Only ]
Unit 4: Hawaiian Fishponds Today
Unit Introduction (Pages Cover, 1-4)
[PDF] [ Text Only ]
Unit at a Glance (Pages 15-16)
[PDF] [ Text Only ]
De-Bait Goes On! (Pages 17-28)
[PDF] [ Text Only ]
Mālama Loko Iʻa (Pages 29-40)
[PDF] [ Text Only ]

Appendix.pdf  – includes:Glossary, Pond Life Cards, Field Sites, Additional Resources, Portfolios and Rubrics

Grades 9-12

Unit 1: The Physical Setting
Unit Introduction (Pages Cover, 1-4)
[ PDF] [ Text Only ]
Unit at a Glance (Pages 61-62)
[ PDF ] [ Text Only ]
He ʻĀina Momona: A Land Sweet and Fertile (Pages 63-70)
[ PDF ] [ Text Only ]
Ka Hana Noʻeau a nā Kūpuna: The Wise Deeds of Our Ancestors (Pages 71-80)
[ PDF ] [ Text Only ]
Unit 2: Life in the Fishpond
Unit Introduction (Pages Cover, 1-2)
[ PDF ] [ Text Only ]
Unit at a Glance (Pages 65-66)
[ PDF ] [ Text Only ]
Passing on the Energy (Pages 67-72)
[ PDF ] [ Text Only ]
Investigating Interrelationships (Pages 73-78)
[ PDF ] [ Text Only ]
Unit 3: Early Hawaiian Fishponds
Unit Introduction (Pages Cover, 1-4)
[ PDF ]
Unit at a Glance (Pages 77-78)
[ PDF ] [ Text Only ]
Learning From the Past (Pages 79-86)
[ PDF ] [ Text Only ]
Huli Kanaka (Pages 87-92)
[ PDF ] [ Text Only ]
Unit 4: Hawaiian Fishponds Today
Unit Introduction (Pages Cover, 1-4)
[  PDF ] [ Text Only ]
Unit at a Glance (Pages 41-42)
[ PDF ] [ Text Only ]
Discovering Density and Diversity (Pages 43-48)
[ PDF ] [ Text Only ]
Mālama Ola (Pages 49-66)
[ PDF ] [ Text Only ]

Appendix.pdf  – includes:Glossary, Pond Life Cards, Field Sites, Additional Resources, Portfolios and Rubrics

Errata: Corrections and Additional Materials (5 pages) [ PDF ]

Page 1: Errata
Unit 1, Page 70 Insert
Unit 2, Page 76b Insert
Unit 3 Page 89b Insert

Acknowledgements

Many people contributed to Project Kāhea Loko from the earliest stages of conceptualization through the field-testing and implementation. The project team extends a heartfelt mahalo to David Cooper, President of Pacific American Foundation, for his guidance and aloha throughout the project; to Colleen Murakami, Environmental Education Specialist of the Hawaiʻi Department of Education (DOE), for her overall guidance and assistance with the curriculum development, video production and workshops for teachers; and to Puanani Wilhelm, Administrator of the DOE Hawaiian Studies and Language Programs Section, for assistance with the curriculum framework.

Mahalo nui loa to Sandi Zikcus, Dr. Robert J. “Joe” Moye and Kanani Aton for their assistance with conceptualizing the initial curriculum framework and helping to draft some of the early activities; to Zennie Sawyer and Tania Will for their exceptional work during the field test process; to Penny Martin for facilitating workshops and being the shining light on the project’s video; and to all of the teachers, consultants, and resource people who contributed their mana’o to the development and implementation of Project Kāhea Loko.

Field Test Teachers and Consultants
Grade 4-5 Kalani Au, Susan Burch, Evan Beachy, Winona Chaney, Zoreh Furtado, Tracy Doane, Kawehi Lucas, Keola Doyle, Lilinoe Yong, Emmarose Fredericks, Malia Huber

Reviewers and Consultants Lahela Igarta, Billy Akutagawa, Davin Iwase, Kalani Flores Nawahīokalaniopu’u/ Sarah Kawaʻa, Frank Kawaikapuokalani Hewett, Joy Kaneshiro, Penny Martin, Lorna Kawakami, Diane Nakashima, Beverly Kawamura, Walter Ritte, Jr., Doreen Kiyabu, Anita Lee

Field Site Coordinators Dr. Darlene Martin, G. Dominic Cardea, Kailua-Kona, Susan Miyamoto, Joylynn Oliveira, Maui June Nagasawa,
Ronnie Tiffany, Tania Will, Gwen Wong,

Grade 6-12 Wanda Atkins, Mark Cunningham, Noel Kabasawa, Dane Kaneshina, Malia Melemai, Rebecca Sanborn, Zennie Sawyer

Project Kāhea Loko Team

Sheila Cyboron — Educational Consultant

Frank Kawaikapuokalani Hewett — Project Cultural Advisor

Keoni Inciong — Language & Cultural Consultant, Writer

Bob Kahihikolo — Project Coordinator

Norbert Larsen — Design and Lay-out

Herb Lee, Jr. — Project Director

Ulu Lota — Project Assistant

Kaʻōhua Lucas — Curriculum Coordinator, Writer

Matt Lyum — Field Specialist

Maura OʻConnor — Curriculum Consultant, Writer

Brook Kapūkuniahi Parker — Artist

Christine Tamaru — Researcher, Writer

Dr. Clyde Tamaru — Senior Technical Consultant

All rights reserved.

Participating Schools and Organizations

Kāneʻohe Elementary
Haleʻiwa Elementary
Pūʻōhala Elementary
University of Hawaiʻi Lab School
Waimalu Elementary
ʻĀhuimanu Elementary
Waiau Elementary
Waimānalo Elementary
Salt Lake Elementary
Maunawili Elementary
Kilohana Elementary
Kualapuʻu Elementary
Lokelani Intermediate
Castle High School
Ke Kula ʻO S.M. Kamakau Immersion School
Waipahu High School
Campbell High School
Īao Intermediate School
Konawaena Middle School
Ānuenue Immersion School
Kauaʻi High School<
Nā Pua Noʻeau, Hilo
Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park, Kailua-Kona
Kupono Hawaiian Club, Windward Community College
Windward Community College, Angela Meixell, Provost
Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary, Maui
Queen Liliʻuokalani Children’s Center, Honolulu Unit

Principal Loko Iʻa Testing Site: Waikalua Loko I’a, Kāneʻohe, Oʻahu
Tom Nishiyama, VP, Bayview Golf Park
Waikalua Loko Fishpond Preservation Society (now PAF)

Matt Lyum

Chuck Eakes

Dr. Clyde Tamaru

Dan Vierra

Dan Smith

Ikaika Hussey

Dr. Floyd McCoy

Sheila Cyboron

Tom Nishiyama

Frank Kawaikapuokalani Hewett